The Wilkinson Rule
How Wilkinson rule has come into existence
Chotanagpur came under British control after Robert Clive defeated joint forces of Nawab of Oudh and Bengal supported by Mughal emperor Shah Alam-II in the battle of Buxar in 1765. The British entered into an agreement with local kings for revenue collection. It was like an auction; whoever will get more revenue than the king will be given the area. King of Porhat gets control by offering a higher revenue.
Kol tribe was not happy with the high rent and usurpation of the land by outsiders. Kol rebellion took place in 1832.
After the rebellion, Thomas Wilkinson decided to declare the Kolhan region as 'Kolhan Separate Estate'. The headquarters of the Kolhan Separate estate was at 'Chaibasa'. The Wilkinson rule came into existence in 1837.
Which System is followed in Wilkinson Rule
Traditional customary Munda-manki would be continued to be followed. Mundas will be responsible for the civil issue at the village level; Manaki, one per gram panchayat, looked after the criminal case.
Is the system followed even today?
Though since independence, there is no explicit legislation setting aside the Wilkinson rule. Though the Wilkinson rule is not set aside, people were charged with sedition for advocating the Wilkinson rule.
Which region comes under Kolhan region under Wilkinson rule West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum, and Seraikela Kharsawan districts of Jharkhand come under the Kolhan region.